Regulatory factors of induced pluripotency: current status
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through enforced expression of four transcription factors [Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM)]; however, the reprogramming efficiency is extremely low. This finding raises fundamental questions about the regulators that influence the change in epigenetic stability and endowment of dedifferentiation potential during reprogramming. Identification of such regulators is critical to removing the roadblocks impeding the efficient generation of safe iPSCs and their successful translation into clinical therapies. In this review, we summarize the current progress that has been made in understanding cellular reprogramming, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulators in induced pluripotency.