Mechanisms determining the fate of hematopoietic stem cells
Successful in vitro expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) will facilitate the application of HSC transplantation for the treatment of various diseases, including hematological malignancies. To achieve this expansion, the molecular mechanisms that control the fate of HSCs must be deciphered. Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) or leukemia stem cells (LSCs) may originate from normal HSCs, which suggest that the dysregulation of the mechanisms that regulate the cell fate of HSCs may underlie leukemogenesis. Here we review the recent progress in the application of HSCs, the regulatory mechanisms of the fate of HSCs, and the origins of leukemia.