TNF-α, a good or bad factor in hematological diseases?
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a highly pleiotropic cytokine involved in a spectrum of physiological processes that control inflammation, anti-tumor responses and homeostasis through two receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2. In general, TNF-R1 mediates cytotoxicity, resistance to infection and stimulation of NF-κB. By contrast, TNF-R2 has been implicated in proliferation of T-cell line, thymocytes and human mononuclear cells. Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect normal hematopoiesis, have a speedy development, high lethal rate and until now still have no effective treatment. Several studies have shown that inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the onset and progress of these diseases. In this review, we summarize the recent studies and evaluate the positive or negative role of TNF-α in some hematological malignancies or diseases with a malignant tendency.