Mini and customized low-cost bioreactors for optimized high-throughput generation of tissue organoids

Michael A. Phelan, Peter I. Lelkes, Anand Swaroop


Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like constructs that differentiate from stem cell-derived, self-assembled embryoid bodies to closely resemble the complex environment, architecture, and function of the native tissue. The cellular microenvironment produced by organoids vastly outclasses the capacity of a standard 2D cell culture plate to simulate the intricacies of living biological systems.