SMAD2/3, versatile molecular tools for cellular engineering

José Bragança


In 2006, the research group directed by Shinya Yamanaka showed for the first time the possibility to reprogram mouse fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) with properties similar to those of embryonic stem cells (ESC) by forced expression of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, since then termed Yamanaka factors (1).