Breast cancer stem cells—from origins to targeted therapy
Breast cancer is marked as one of the leading causes of malignancy-related morbidities worldwide. In spite of aggressive interventions, the inevitability of relapse and metastasis severely impede survival rates. Mounting evidence highlight the insidious role of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small but significant subpopulation of undifferentiated cells that drive tumour progression, spread and resistance to conventional therapy. The nature and significance of breast CSCs remains poorly understood, and even disputed by many researchers. This review discusses the origins, biomarkers, signalling pathways, regulatory mechanisms, and targeted therapy of breast CSCs.