Comment on: Expandable cardiovascular progenitor cells reprogrammed from fibroblasts
Since Takahashi and Yamanaka generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mice and humans only 10 years ago (1,2), studies of regenerative medicine have been enthusiastically conducted all over the world. By overexpressing four stem cell-specific transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4: OSKM, known as the four Yamanaka factors), fibroblasts from mice and humans can be induced to a pluripotent state (1,2). IPSCs have the critically valuable advantage of autotransplantation compared with embryonic stem cells. Much has been learned following the generation of iPSCs. Many terminally differentiated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, CMs, hepatocytes, neural cells, other cells) show substantial cell fate plasticity. These cells can be converted to other types of cells by treatment with defined cytokines and signaling molecules.